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PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. Professor at Pisa and Padua. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the father of modern science".
His observations of the heavens lead him to claim that all planets revolve around the sun. Until this it was believed, based on Plato, Aristotle, and Ptolemy, that the earth was the centre of the universe. This work brought him in conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. Galileo himself claimed to only show the genius of God’s work.
While under house arrest by the Church, Galileo managed to smuggle out the manuscript of this important book Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems,). It was printed in Leiden in 1637.
 *GALILEO QUIZ
*MY LAB REPORT 

Metric System Conversions Song
Magnitudes and units 
Learn how to convert units watching the next video


DENSITY
ARCHIMEDES AND THE GOLD CROWN
1.- WHERE DOES THIS STORY TAKE PLACE?
2.- WHY WAS THE KING WORRIED?
3.- WHAT WAS THE FIRST IDEA OF ARCHIMEDES?
4.- WHAT IS DENSITY?
5.- WHAT IS THE DENSITY OF THE GOLD?
6.- HOW CAN WE CALCULATE THE DENSITY?
7.- WHAT DID ARCHIMEDES REALIZE?
8.- HOW CAN WE DO THE SAME THAN ARCHIMEDES IN THE LAB?
9.- WHAT WAS ARCHIMEDES SHOUTING?
10.- WAS THE DENSITY RIGHT AT THE END OF THE STORY?



VERNIER CALIPER SIMULATOR
*HOW TO CALCULATE VOLUME AND DENSITY 
* MASS, VOLUME AND DENSITY QUIZ 
* DENSITY PROBLEMS 1
* DENSITY PROBLEMS 2 

MATERIAL WORLD: ATOMS
 *VIDEO: WHAT IS AN ATOM?

THE MATTER
THE STATES OF MATTER 
HEATING CURVE OF WATER 

1)      What is temperature?

Temperature is a measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance.

2)      Why is the temperature going up?

. Higher temperatures mean that the molecules are moving, vibrating and rotating with more energy. They have higher kinetic energy.

3)       Why did the temperature remain constant around 100°C and creates a plateau?

The water is boiling and the particles are changing state from liquid to a gas. Essentially the temperature measured refers to the water (liquid state) molecules’ kinetic energy and not of the water vapor. Energy continuous to be added but the temperature stays the same because the water vapor’s kinetic energy is not taken into consideration.

4)       What is happening to the kinetic energy of the molecules as temperature rises?

As the temperature rises molecules move much for rapidly causing the kinetic energy to rise

5)       What would happen to the kinetic energy of the molecules if the temperature would be lowered?

If the temperature is lowered the particles will move slower causing the kinetic energy to lower.

6)      How does this lab relate to kinetic molecular theory?

The particles contain kinetic energy which is increased when thermal energy is applied. 
PURE SUBSTANCES AND MIXTURES


3º ESO
UNIT 1: SCIENCE AND MEASURE
*LAB SAFETY RULES
*LAB EQUIPMENT1
*LAB EQUPMENT2
*QUIZ
**EXERCISES UNIT 1 

UNIT 2: GASES AND SOLUTIONS
I GASES
 *GAS LAWS VIDEOS
*FIRST: BOYLE´S LAW
*SECOND: CHARLES´S LAW 
*THIRD: GAY-LUSSAC´S LAW
*SUMMARY OF GASEOUS STATE 
*MATERIAL TO STUDY AT HOME*

**EXERCISES**
*BOYLE´S LAW PROBLEMS 
*CHARLES´S LAW PROBLEMS
*GAY-LUSSAC´S LAW PROBLEMS 
*COMBINED GAS LAW PROBLEMS (WITH THE SOLUTIONS) 
Boyle's Law Concept Questions
Gas Laws Review Quiz
Worksheet gases 
*EXERCISES
1.- If a 4000 g solution of salt contains 40 g of salt, what is its mass percent? 
2.- 5.0 g of sugar are dissolved in 150 g of water. What is the mass percent of sugar in the solution? 
3.- How many grams of sodium bromide, NaBr, are needed to make 50 g of a 5.0 % solution? 
4.- What mass of sodium fluoride, NaF, must be mixed with 25 mL of water to create a 3.5 % solution? The density of water is 1 g/mL. 
5.- We dissolve 90 dg of sugar in 0.3 dm3 of water. a) Calculate the sugar percent by mass. b) How many grams of sugar per litre are there? Density of water: 0.98 g/mL. 
6.- A 4 g sugar cube is dissolved in a 350 mL teacup of 80◦C water. What is the percent by mass of the sugar solution? Given: Density of water at 80◦C is 0.975 g/mL. 
7.- Find the concentration in g/L for each of the following solutions: a) 20 g of sodium chloride, NaCl, dissolved in 500 L of solution. b) 2.8 g of sodium bromide in a 200 mL solution. c) 200 mg of potassium chloride, KCl, dissolved in a 75 mL solution. 
8.- How many grams of chlorine, Cl2, are needed to make 250 mL of a 4.5 g/L solution? 
9.- Calculate the volume percent ethanol in a solution made by mixing 40.0 mL of ethanol with 75.0 mL of water. Calculate the percent by mass of ethanol if the density of water is 1 g/mL and the density of ethanol is 0.79 g/mL. 
10.- If the percent by volume is 2.0 % and the volume of solution is 0.25 L what is the volume of solute in the solution? 11.- Use the data provided to express the concentration of a solution in the desired unit: a) 15.0 g of gold in a 2.5 dag copper and gold alloy (percent by mass). b) 15.00 cm3 of acetic acid mixed with enough water to make 300.0 mL of vinegar (percent by volume). c) 2.50 g of potassium chloride is dissolved in enough water to make a 125 cm3 solution (grams per liter).
* MORE CONCENTRATION EXERCISES WITH SOLUTION 
UNIT 3: ATOMS and COMPOUNDS
 *READING COMPREHENSION: ATOMIC HISTORY
* BUILD AN ATOM 
*CHEMICAL BOND1
*CHEMICAL BOND2  
*DIFFERENT MATERIALS TO STUDY CHEMICAL BONDS
*NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UNIT 4: CHEMICAL REACTIONS 
* STOICHOMETRY PRACTICE PROBLEMS
* CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EXERCISES 
* CHEMICAL REACTIONS EXERCISES 
* CONSERVATION OF MASS WORKSHEET
*  MOL CONCEPT

The mole is the unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) for amount of substance.
1 mole in quantity, that implies that the matter under consideration contains exactly 6.022 * 1023 number of particles (atoms, molecules, ions, electrons or any other elementary entities).
Though mole is defined as a number but it’s not limited to that in calculations. It has various other equivalent definitions with the only difference from each other being that they define mole for different states of matter and at different conditions.

HOW BIG IS A MOLE?





SCIENCE IN ENGLISH. ARE YOU READY? (After read it, write what you think about it)

Top Reasons Why Students Fail Chemistry

Avoiding Failure in Chemistry

By

Are you taking a chemistry class? Are you worried you might not pass? Chemistry is a subject many students prefer to avoid, even if they have an interest in science, because of its reputation for lowering grade point averages. However, it isn't as bad as it seems, especially if you avoid these common mistakes.

1. Procrastinating

Never do today what you can put off until tomorrow, right? Wrong! The first few days in a chemistry class may be very easy and could lull you into a false sense of security. Don't put off doing homework or studying until halfway through the class. Mastering chemistry requires you to build concept upon concept. If you miss the basics, you'll get yourself into trouble. Pace yourself. Set aside a small segment of time each day for chemistry. It will help you to gain long-term mastery. Don't cram.

2. Insufficient Math Preparation

Don't go into chemistry until you understand the basics of algebra. Geometry helps, too. You will need to be able to perform unit conversions. Expect to work chemistry problems on a daily basis. Don't rely too much on a calculator. Chemistry and physics use math as an essential tool.

3. Not Getting or Reading the Text

Yes, there are classes in which the text is optional or completely useless. This isn't one of those classes. Get the text. Read it! Ditto for any required lab manuals. Even if the lectures are fantastic, you'll need the book for the homework assignments. A study guide may be of limited use, but the basic text is a must-have.

4. Psyching Yourself Out

I think I can, I think I can... you have to have a positive attitude toward chemistry. If you truly believe you will fail you may be setting yourself up for a self-fulfilling prophecy. If you have prepared yourself for the class, you have to believe that you can be successful. Also, it's easier to study a topic you like than one you hate. Don't hate chemistry. Make your peace with it and master it.

5. Not Doing Your Own Work

Study guides and books with worked answers in the back are great, right? Yes, but only if you use them for help and not as an easy way to get your homework done. Don't let a book or classmates do your work for you. They won't be available during the tests, which will count for a big portion of your grade.